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All Nobel Prize Winners Pdf 24



First awarded in 1731 following donations from Godfrey Copley FRS (PDF), it was initially awarded for the most important scientific discovery or for the greatest contribution made by experiment. The Copley Medal is thought to be the world's oldest scientific prize and it was awarded 170 years before the first Nobel Prize. Notable winners include Benjamin Franklin, Dorothy Hodgkin, Albert Einstein and Charles Darwin. The medal is of silver gilt, is awarded annually, alternating between the physical and biological sciences (odd and even years respectively), and is accompanied by a a gift of 25,000.




All Nobel Prize Winners Pdf 24



A central question in the science of science concerns how to develop a quantitative understanding of the evolution and impact of individual careers. Over the course of history, a relatively small fraction of individuals have made disproportionate, profound, and lasting impacts on science and society. Despite a long-standing interest in the careers of scientific elites across diverse disciplines, it remains difficult to collect large-scale career histories that could serve as training sets for systematic empirical and theoretical studies. Here, by combining unstructured data collected from CVs, university websites, and Wikipedia, together with the publication and citation database from Microsoft Academic Graph (MAG), we reconstructed publication histories of nearly all Nobel prize winners from the past century, through both manual curation and algorithmic disambiguation procedures. Data validation shows that the collected dataset presents among the most comprehensive collection of publication records for Nobel laureates currently available. As our quantitative understanding of science deepens, this dataset is expected to have increasing value. It will not only allow us to quantitatively probe novel patterns of productivity, collaboration, and impact governing successful scientific careers, it may also help us unearth the fundamental principles underlying creativity and the genesis of scientific breakthroughs.


As a more concrete example, we present two new findings using the curated dataset in the associated commentary44. Briefly, we find that careers of Nobel laureates are characterized by remarkably similar patterns as those of ordinary scientists. For example, apart from the prize-winning paper, all other important works in Nobel careers closely follow the random impact rule10,11, a finding that is contrary to the common belief that Nobel laureates tend to do critical work early in their careers. Further, the laureates also show a tendency toward collaborative research in larger teams, which runs counter to the iconic image of lone geniuses making solo contributions.


Procedure for identifying the prize-winning paper of 2010 Physics Nobel laureate Andre Geim. Step 1: The official website of the Nobel Prize, nobelprize.org, offers rich information for identifying the prize-winning works of Nobel laureates, including the year or period of the prize-winning achievement, the prize motivation, the title of the Nobel Lecture, etc. Step 2: We can obtain detailed information on the Nobel Lecture in the MAG dataset. Step 3: We can identify the prize-winning paper from the reference of the Nobel Lecture using information derived in Step 1.


We matched all prize-winning papers with the MAG database. Together, we gathered 874 prize-winning papers for 545 Nobel laureates, including 283 prize-winning papers for 193 laureates in Physics, 259 prize-winning papers for 163 laureates in Chemistry, and 332 prize-winning papers for 189 laureates in Medicine.


Ig Nobel Prize winnersDan ArielyCraig BennettElena BodnarGlenda BrowneJohn CulvenorDeepak ChopraTheodore GrayJasmuheenKarl KruszelnickiDonatella MarazzitiDan MeyerGeoffrey MillerSun Myung MoonGauri NandaDr. NakamatsRon PopeilAndrea RapisardaDorian RaymerDaniel SimonsRichard StephensBrian WansinkAnna WilkinsonPhilip ZimbardoRolf Zwaan


We first extract the nucleic acids from the samples, then use a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of pathogens. PCR is a Nobel prize-winning molecular biology technique that amplifies certain nucleic acids exponentially, with the help of an enzyme called Taq polymerase. With this technique, we can detect single copies of the target DNA and amplify it to billions of copies that we can easily detect and quantify. For the RNA viruses (such as canine distemper virus, influenza virus and FIP virus), we do RT-PCRs which involves conversion of RNA to DNA followed by PCR.


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Céline Héloïse Larcade, Laure Molina, Nawal Touil, Nicolas T...

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