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Packed full of micro-RNA and other short-fragmented RNA sequences that are crucial for cell-to-cell communication, exosomes have recently become a critical factor in pathology and disease progression. Although seemingly difficult to study due to their low abundance, small size and delicateness, exosomes are present all throughout the human body, purified from various sample types such as plasma, serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and saliva. In this blog, we present to you 3 commonly encountered issues surrounding exosome purification, along with our suggestions and solutions for these uncertainties. \r\n\r\n\r\nLow Yield\r\nDue to exosomes existing in low abundance within liquid biopsy, the purification of these extracellular vesicles can be quite difficult. Via our proprietary isolation technology, Norgen is able to purify the highest quantities of exosomes from samples for downstream applications, such as Western blot, Nanosight (NTA), Electron Microscopy, and RNA purification, without impacting the integrity or contents of the exosomes. \r\nThis is evidenced by a 2020 paper by Reale, et al. where they demonstrated that Norgen\u2019s exosome purification kit obtained superior amounts of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and further confirmed that these EVs were indeed exosomes by correlating this finding with levels of exosome specific protein TSG101. This is further supported by the co-founder and chief scientist at Cancer Treatment Options and Management Inc. (CTOAM), Alex Rolland, who was having issues with isolation quantity before switching to Norgen\u2019s product; \u201cRecently Norgen has worked with us to purify blood-based exosomes and exosomal-RNA at a high enough concentration to allow RNA seq based expression testing\u2026 we are able to obtain expression of 20,000 genes from tumour associated exosomes from cancer patients both in remission and experiencing recurrence.\u201d commented Alex Rolland from CTOAM. \r\n\r\n\r\nContamination\r\nExosomes often co-purify with other extracellular vesicles and related structures as they are similar in size. This contaminates the exosome purity and can affect downstream applications as well as confidence in the results. Many popular methods of exosome purification, such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and filtration, are size-based and therefore suffer from such contamination. Particularly, the industry-standard ultracentrifugation often results in a single pellet containing everything, including small vesicles, total RNA and small RNA, tediously leading to contaminated outcomes. Similar issues also occur with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, which is found in many popular commercial kits. Norgen\u2019s Exosome Purification Kits avoid ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation via our proprietary\u00a0isolation technology that targets the charge of exosomal surface proteins.\r\n\r\nOne of the cleanest methods of exosome purification is antibody purification, as it targets exosome-specific surface proteins. A recent comparison of microRNA diversity in size-based separation of exosomes (Ultracentrifugation, ExoQuick, and exoEasy vs surface protein-based isolation of exosomes (Miltenyi Antibodies and Norgen)) demonstrated by heat map shows that Norgen\u2019s proprietary SiC resin matrix yield has the highest resemblance to that of the Miltenyi antibody method. This finding further supports the claim of high purity with Norgen\u2019s method while being significantly cheaper than antibody purification methods.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nLoss of Exosome Integrity\r\nExosomes are quite fragile and therefore are liable to damage or alteration with harsh mechanics or chemistry found in many commercial exosome isolation kits, which can negatively impact downstream applications such as NGS. Norgen avoids this through our proprietary pH-based isolation technology, which alters the isoelectric charges on the membrane-embedded proteins of the exosomes. This method is much gentler with the samples and causes less damage or alteration to the exosomes, thereby leading to greater yield and purity. Norgen Biotek allows for efficient and repeatable exosome purification, which can focus on isolating intact exosomes, exosomal RNA or a combination of both from a variety of samples such as plasma\/serum or urine. \r\n\r\nThe field of exosome research is an exciting and developing field filled with numerous applications to human health and disease. While this field holds much promise, there are still many obstacles when it comes to working with exosomes that need to be addressed as the field grows.\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n\tReale, A., Carmichael, I., Xu, R., Mithraprabhu, S., Khong, T., Chen, M., ... & Spencer, A. (2021). Human myeloma cell\u2010and plasma\u2010derived extracellular vesicles contribute to functional regulation of stromal cells.\u00a0Proteomics,\u00a021(13-14), 2000119.\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\tRolland, A. (2023) Why I use NORGEN. Cancer Treatment Options and Management (CTOAM). \r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/230316\/banner_small.jpg);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n","1"],["2023-02-10 00:00:00","5 Upcoming Liquid Biopsy Trends in 2023","180","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_4.jpg","2257","9574","With robot servers, the metaverse, and automation, it is clear that we\u2019ve officially entered the era of advanced technology. This is also true for the life sciences industry. Liquid biopsy has significantly improved over the past couple of years as a minimally invasive tool for diagnostic, prognostic, monitoring and treatment purposes. In 2023, liquid biopsy is often preferred over traditional tissue biopsy due to its high level of accuracy and ease of collection. Tissue biopsies, on the other hand, are invasive and sometimes risky to collect, and may lack accuracy due to sample heterogeneity. Therefore, researchers and clinicians have shifted to samples such as plasma, serum, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, and more. With this, we have seen major trends emerge in the scientific industry such as the use of saliva for COVID-19 testing or the use of cf-RNA from urine for prostate cancer screening. \r\n\r\nThe future of liquid biopsy is highlighted below with five upcoming trends to look forward to in 2023, including:\r\n\r\nNon-Invasive Prenatal Testing\r\nMass Population Screening and Point-of-Care\r\nRNA Therapeutics and Treatment Monitoring\r\nTopical Use for Skincare\r\nPrecision Oncology\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n1. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing \r\nNon-invasive prenatal testing, also known as NIPT, is a new minimally invasive screening method to detect whether a fetus has any genetic abnormalities through a simple blood draw from the mother. From maternal plasma, researchers or clinicians are able to isolate fetal DNA that has been expelled from the placenta into the maternal bloodstream. With the isolated DNA, they are able to detect any trisomies, the most common being Down Syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18) or Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13).1\r\n\r\nBefore NIPT, the gold standard for trisomy testing was amniocentesis, which is a highly invasive procedure that involves inserting a needle into the amniotic sac to collect amniotic fluid. Although accurate, this test cannot be performed before the 14-week mark as there is a risk of miscarriage.2 NIPT is not yet a replacement for amniocentesis and is only considered a pre-screening tool, however, with the emergence of new technologies to isolate and detect nucleic acids, NIPT could be the future for prenatal testing. \r\n\r\nFor more information, Norgen has created a seamless workflow for NIPT utilizing the plasma\/serum sample type.\r\n\r\n\r\n2. Mass Population Screening and Point-of-Care \r\n\r\nMass population screening is an old practice; in the 1980s, mass screening for breast cancer using mammography was implemented for early detection in hopes to reduce breast cancer mortality rates.3 However, as medical technology using liquid biopsy evolves, mass population screening has improved. This includes recent advancements in sample preservation, making mass population screening using point-of-care collection effortless. \r\n\r\nIn a study done by Martyn Webb and colleagues using Norgen\u2019s Urine Preservation Tubes, it was determined that using the preservative for at-home urine collection resulted in the same quality of RNA compared to samples collected in the clinic and immediately processed.4 They found that with this at-home collection protocol, there was potential to perform large-scale prostate cancer studies while saving money, time and discomfort for the patient.4\r\n\r\nAs more and more techniques using liquid biopsies for detection are discovered, we could be seeing an increase in mass population screening for early diagnosis and in some cases, like HIV and HCV, a reduction in transmission and infection rates. \r\n\r\n\r\n3. RNA Therapeutics and Treatment Monitoring\r\n\r\nWe\u2019ve touched base on diagnosis and mass screening, but did you know liquid biopsies have the potential to be used in pharmaceutical industries\r\n\r\nThe next liquid biopsy trend that we\u2019ll be seeing in 2023 is the use of liquid biopsy for therapeutics and treatment monitoring, whether it\u2019s cancer treatment or even potential therapies for other disorders like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. \r\n\r\nIn a study done by Masashi Fukuoka and his team using Norgen\u2019s Plasma\/Serum Circulating and Exosomal RNA Purification Mini Kit (Slurry Format), they found that there is a relation between aging and the miRNA in a patient's blood circulation, with the most notable being miR-199-3p, which plays a role in myogenic differentiation and muscle generation. Upon further studies, they determined that the administration of miR199#4 (a mimic of miR-199-3p) not only delayed the muscle loss due to aging in mice, but also increased the muscle strength when administered to MDX mice (mice mimicking Duchenne muscular dystrophy).5 With further studies, miR199#4 has the potential of becoming an RNA therapeutic for patients with muscle conditions and other age-related diseases.\r\n\r\nWith liquid biopsy potentially playing a key role in therapeutics, researchers will emphasize this treatment method as the field progresses.\r\n\r\n\r\n4. Topical Use For Skincare\r\nSkincare is one of the leading industries in the world and according to Statista, it is estimated that it will generate roughly $164 billion in 2023.6 The next trend we'll be discussing is the use of liquid biopsies and their contents for topical treatments. Yes\u2026 liquid biopsies for skin care. \r\n\r\nApart from the cell-free circulating nucleic acids, liquid biopsies contain small circulating extracellular vesicles called exosomes. These vesicles contain cargo such as miRNA, fragmented mRNA and proteins. As they are in charge of cell-to-cell communication, exosomes have mostly been used to study disease, however, recent studies have shown their potential for wound treatment and cosmetics. \r\n\r\nAccording to Yang et al., the diverse cargo in exosomes makes it possible to have more than one therapeutic effect when it comes to skincare. For topical use, exosomes have the potential to enhance wound healing and provide an anti-aging effect as they increase angiogenic ability and collagen synthesis, as well as the potential to act as treatments for skin conditions like psoriasis due to the anti-inflammatory properties.7\r\n\r\nCould exosomes be the new miracle cure for younger and healthier looking skin \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n5. Precision Oncology (patient-to-patient specific-includes treatment plans, prognosis and monitoring) \r\n\r\nOncological applications of liquid biopsies have become an attractive alternative for researchers. While cancer research is not relatively new, precision oncology is, only being introduced in the last few decades. The future of cancer research is bright in 2023 as streamlined and simplified liquid biopsy is accelerating and qualitatively improving oncology. \r\n\r\nPrecision oncology is the patient-specific molecular profiling of tumour nucleic acids for monitoring and treatment purposes. This new technique has recently been implemented by a team at Cancer Treatment Options and Management Inc (CTOAM). Using Norgen\u2019s plasma\/serum workflow, CTOAM has utilized plasma as a liquid biopsy sample type for identifying cancer in undiagnosed patients, monitoring the efficiency of cancer treatment, and identifying patients in remission or with early recurrence. For this purpose, CTOAM has created 100\u2019s of custom TaqMan probes that are used to monitor cancer patients.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nTo learn more about CTOAM and their work with precision oncology, watch our on-demand MasterClass, Enhancing Precision Medicine with Liquid Biopsy, featuring the Director of Scientific Research and Co-Founder of CTOAM, Alexander Rolland.\r\n\r\nWatch Now\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n\tBirko S, Ravitsky V, Dupras C, et al. The value of non-invasive prenatal testing: Preferences of Canadian pregnant women, their partners, and health professionals regarding NIPT use and access.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019;19(1)\r\n\tdoi:10.1186\/s12884-018-2153-y\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\tAmniocentesis. Mayo Clinic.\r\n https:\/\/www.mayoclinic.org\/tests-procedures\/amniocentesis\/about\/pac-20392914#::text=Miscarriage.,Needle%20injury. Published October 7, 2022. Accessed February 1, 2023.\r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tKlabunde CN, Ballard-Barbash R. Evaluating population-based screening mammography programs internationally. Seminars in Breast Disease2007;10(2):102-107.\r\n\tdoi:10.1053\/j.sembd.2007.09.007\r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tWebb M, Manley K, Olivan M, et al. Methodology for the at-home collection of urine samples for prostate cancer detection.BioTechniques2020;68(2):65-71 doi:10.2144\/btn-2019-0092 \r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tFukuoka M, Fujita H, Numao K, et al. Mir-199-3p enhances muscle regeneration and ameliorates aged muscle and muscular dystrophy. Communications Biology. 2021;4(1).\r\ndoi:10.1038\/s42003-021-01952-2 \r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\tGlobal: Skin care market revenue 2013-2026. Statista. \r\n\thttps:\/\/www.statista.com\/forecasts\/1268473\/worldwide-revenue-skin-care-marketPublished January 25, 2023. Accessed February 1, 2023. \r\n\t\r\n \r\n\tYang GH, Lee YB, Kang D, et al. Overcome the barriers of the skin: Exosome therapy. Biomaterials Research.2021;25(1). \r\n\tdoi:10.1186\/s40824-021-00224-8\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/230210\/banner_small.jpg);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n\r\n","1"],["2022-10-26 00:00:00","Automation: Spin Column vs Magnetic Bead","40","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_3.jpg","2213","9273","Over the past few years, the need for rapid, sensitive molecular diagnostics has increased dramatically. The accuracy and reliability of molecular diagnostics are invaluable in the clinical diagnostic environment but also in fields such as agrigenomics, surveillance, research, and clinical trials. \r\n\r\nImportance of Automation\r\nWith the increase in demand for molecular testing, many laboratories have investigated the idea of automation. Automation is analogous to having an additional pair of hands in the laboratory to help process samples while simultaneously shortening the turn-around time (TAT) from sample to result. In addition, automation is an effective tool that can be used to improve accuracy and reproducibility within the laboratory setting. Automation can be readily applied to molecular workflows, from applications as simple as plate setup to those as complex as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library preparation. \r\nOne of the most crucial steps in molecular testing is isolating high-quality DNA or RNA, which ultimately provides the foundation for all downstream applications. Nucleic acid extraction can be accomplished in many ways. The two most common techniques utilize spin column technology or magnetic beads to bind nucleic acid and wash away other cellular components.\r\n\r\nThis leads to the question: which is the better approach when it comes to automation\r\n\r\nSpin Column vs Magnetic Bead\r\n\r\n\r\nIn the context of automation, each technique offers benefits and drawbacks. \r\n\r\nFirstly, spin column samples are generally processed using a centrifuge. This approach can be expensive and complicated to automate. However, instruments such as vacuum manifolds or positive pressure manifolds are a reliable and automation-friendly alternative. With these tools, liquids can be rapidly pulled or pushed through columns. The main benefit of this approach is that one can obtain high-quality DNA and RNA within a short processing time. The primary drawback is that the automation instruments for column-based methods are expensive.\r\n\r\nMagnetic bead-based extraction kits have become very popular in recent years, primarily due to their simplicity and ease of use. Further, their streamlined, simple methodology is more easily automated than column-based approaches. An additional benefit is that the instruments required are generally more affordable. The primary drawback is that, depending on the method used, the processing time is often longer than column-based approaches. Furthermore, magnetic bead-based automation methods require additional optimization to achieve favourable yields.\r\n\r\nAt Norgen Biotek, we readily assist our customers with automation-friendly solutions for either magnetic bead or spin column methods. Furthermore, our unique Silicon Carbide technology offers several key advantages over traditional silica-based columns or magnetic beads. These benefits include:\r\n\r\nNo bias towards GC content\r\n Higher Sensitivity\r\nCarrier RNA is not required\r\n No Phenol\/Chloroform\r\nLysis buffer inactivates viruses\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nReach out to us at Norgen Biotek\u2014the experts in sample preparation\u2014to discuss how we can assist with your automated (or manual) sample preparation requirements.\r\n\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n Let\u2019s discuss how we can assist with your sample preparation requirements.\r\n Ask the Experts\r\n \r\n Let's Connect\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n #overlay \r\n position: fixed;\r\n display: none;\r\n width: 100%;\r\n height: 100%;\r\n top: 0;\r\n left: 0;\r\n right: 0;\r\n bottom: 0;\r\n background-color: transparent;\r\n z-index: 1;\r\n cursor: pointer;\r\n\r\n .form-wrapper2\r\n background: white;\r\n padding: 3%;\r\n margin: 2%;\r\n \/* text-align: center; *\/\r\n position: fixed;\r\n top: 8%;\r\n width: 50%;\r\n \/* margin: auto; *\/\r\n z-index: 1;\r\n border: 1px solid #eaeaea;\r\n 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max-content;\r\n margin-top: 1px !important;\r\n padding: 2% !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 368px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:13px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 336px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:10px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:16px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 286px) \r\n.webinar .lrgText\r\n margin-bottom: 5px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:6px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:50px !important;\r\n \r\n*\/\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.item\r\nposition:relative ;\r\n\r\n.header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n\r\nwebinar2 \r\ntext-align:center;\r\n\r\n\r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-height: 895px)\r\n\r\n.form-wrapper2 \r\n \r\n height: -webkit-fill-available;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-height: 610px)\r\n\r\n.form-wrapper2 \r\n \r\n top:10%;\r\n height: -webkit-fill-available;\r\n\r\n\r\n","1"],["2022-10-06 00:00:00","Wastewater Surveillance: Detecting Disease Outbreaks Earlier","286","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg.png","2197","8909","\r\n\r\nHave you ever wondered what happens to the toilet water after you flush Or where your shower water goes This water, along with the water from your washing machine and sink, is called \u2018wastewater', and it flows through your home piping into either a septic tank or all the way to a wastewater treatment plant. Because wastewater contains feces and other contaminants, it is essential for it to be treated before it can be discharged into nearby lakes or rivers.\r\n\r\nWhat\u2019s In Wastewater\r\n\r\nHuman feces mostly contains dead cells and undigested food, but it\u2019s also filled with tons of dead and alive bacterial cells and viruses. However, as one would suspect, not all fecal matter is the same. The feces from a person with a disease will likely contain infectious bacteria or viruses. With this in mind, imagine a scenario in which a widespread viral disease affecting millions of people was detectable through human stool. In this scenario, a neighborhood sewage system would contain a plethora of genetic material that could be used to monitor the progression of the disease.\r\n\r\n\r\nThis scenario isn\u2019t too far from reality. In fact, this is what researchers and institutions from around the world have done for more than two years since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. By testing wastewater, which contains human waste, researchers are able to monitor the peaks and troughs of SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk, urban areas. Furthermore, by using this method researchers can predict trends in infection rates since infected individuals typically undergo viral shedding before symptoms appear.1 The identification of a sharp increase in viral signatures detected in wastewater could indicate the possibility of a spike in positive COVID-19 diagnoses, as well as an increase in hospitalizations. This information could be extremely beneficial for healthcare professionals to better prepare for an influx of patients and reduce the risk of overwhelming healthcare systems.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\nEarly Detection of Variants Using Wastewater\r\n\r\nBesides predicting trends in community infection rates, another significant role that wastewater monitoring has played is in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Using wastewater, researchers successfully detected Alpha, Delta, and other early variants roughly two weeks before appearing in clinical testing.2 Similarly, the original Omicron variant in San Diego was detected in wastewater a week before it showed up in clinical sampling.2 Because of these advantages, wastewater testing for SARS-CoV-2 was rapidly adopted. Indeed, the number of survey sites exploded from only 38 in October 2020 to approximately 3,600 in September 2022, involving around 280 universities, and spread across 70 countries.3 \r\n\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n Discover more about wastewater and its applications\r\n Book a Free 30 Minute Consultation\r\n \r\n Let's Connect\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n \u00d7\r\n Register for Your 30 Minute Free Consultation\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n First Name*\r\n \r\n\r\n Last Name*\r\n \r\n\r\n Email*\r\n \r\n\r\n Company\/Institution*\r\n \r\n Job Title*\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n I would like to receive emails from Norgen Biotek regarding webinars, services, and other marketing material.\r\n \r\n\t\t\t It is our responsibility to protect your and we guarantee that your data will be completely confidential. You can unsubscribe from Norgen emails at any time by clicking the link in the footer of our emails. For more information please view our Privacy Policy.\r\n \r\n \r\n Let's Connect!\r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nLuckily, wastewater surveillance is not just limited to SARS-CoV-2. The first documented case of wastewater being used to track a disease occurred in 1854 during the cholera outbreak in London.4 Since then, epidemiologists have used wastewater to track and contain diseases in the United States, such as polio as well as diseases caused by noroviruses and rotaviruses.4 Recently, Dr. Delatolla from the University of Ottawa detected monkeypox wastewater signals in Ottawa and Hamilton. Furthermore, researchers from Stanford University and Emory University who focus on monitoring monkeypox in wastewater picked up viral signals from two dozen locations across 10 different states.5 \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe Future of Wastewater Surveillance\r\n\r\nEven with all its benefits, the future of wastewater surveillance still remains uncertain. It all boils down to funding. Researchers are concerned that as the threat of COVID-19 dies down, so too will government interest and funding. In Ontario, there are currently more than a dozen labs whose funding for wastewater surveillance ends in March 2023, and the researchers will be left wondering whether it will continue or not.3 \r\n\r\nThere is still, however, a glimmer of hope. At the federal level in Canada, officials have recognized the potential of wastewater testing not only for SARS-CoV-2, but also for other pathogens.3 As of October 2022, the national research team is monitoring 25 wastewater sites in 13 different Canadian cities for SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox.3 In addition, public health officials are exploring the possibilities of monitoring antimicrobial resistance or diseases such as tuberculosis or influenza through wastewater.3 There are also ongoing efforts to set up a surveillance network between countries to detect viral signals early on in order to prevent future outbreaks. Researchers at Western University, in London Ontario, are working with teams in Uganda and India to collect and analyze wastewater from drainage systems and latrines.3 \r\n\r\nCoordinated global surveillance of wastewater has the potential to act as an early warning system with the ability to alert local healthcare authorities of an impending outbreak and warn the world of future pandemics. With ample evidence that wastewater surveillance systems work, we hope to see more funding for it in the future. If your research involves wastewater testing, check out our Soil RNA Purification Kit - Supplementary Protocol for Isolation of RNA from wastewater.\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Wastewater Surveillance System (NWSS) \u2013 a new public health tool to understand COVID-19 spread in a community.1. https:\/\/www.cdc.gov\/healthywater\/surveillance\/wastewater-surveillance\/wastewater-surveillance.html2022, March 21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 5, 2022\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\t U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Tracking sars-COV-2 variants in wastewater.(2022, August 16)https:\/\/www.nih.gov\/news-events\/nih-research-matters\/tracking-sars-cov-2-variants-wastewaterNational Institutes of Health. Retrieved October 5, 2022,\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t CBC\/Radio Canada.For virus tracking, wastewater is liquid gold. scientists hope that work isn't flushed away CBC news.(2022, September 17)https:\/\/www.cbc.ca\/news\/health\/for-virus-tracking-wastewater-is-liquid-gold-scientists-hope-that-work-isn-t-flushed-away-1.6584591CBCnews. Retrieved October 5, 2022\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t Staff, L. in the L.A brief history of wastewater testing and pathogen detection.(2021, October 5).https:\/\/www.thermofisher.com\/blog\/life-in-the-lab\/a-brief-history-of-wastewater-testing-and-pathogen-detection\/ Life in the Lab. Retrieved October 5, 2022\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t Park, A.Researchers are now tracking monkeypox in wastewater. https:\/\/time.com\/6206767\/wastewater-monkeypox-tracking\/ (2022, September 7).Time. 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!important;\r\nfont-size:10px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:16px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 286px) \r\n.webinar .lrgText\r\n margin-bottom: 5px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:6px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:50px !important;\r\n \r\n*\/\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.item\r\nposition:relative ;\r\n\r\n.header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n\r\nwebinar2 \r\ntext-align:center;\r\n\r\n\r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-height: 895px)\r\n\r\n.form-wrapper2 \r\n \r\n height: -webkit-fill-available;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-height: 610px)\r\n\r\n.form-wrapper2 \r\n \r\n top:10%;\r\n height: -webkit-fill-available;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nfunction openform()\r\n console.log(document.querySelector(\".form-wrapper2\"));\r\n document.querySelector(\".form-wrapper2\").style.display = \"block\";\r\n document.getElementById(\"overlay\").style.display = \"block\";\r\n\r\nfunction closeform()\r\n document.querySelector(\".form-wrapper2\").style.display = \"none\";\r\n document.getElementById(\"overlay\").style.display = \"none\";\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n\r\n \/\/ function updateFormSize()\r\n \/\/ \/\/ var popup_id = window.location.href.split('#')[1];\r\n \/\/ var og_popup = document.querySelector('.form-wrapper2');\r\n \/\/ if(og_popup)\r\n \/\/ var form = document.querySelector('.form-wrapper2');\r\n \/\/ var og_height = og_popup.offsetHeight;\r\n \/\/ form.style.minHeight = og_height;\r\n \/\/ \r\n \/\/ \r\n","1"],["2022-09-13 00:00:00","Saliva - A True Representation of the Human Microbiome","201","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_2.jpg","2169","8716","A human mouth contains over 20 billion bacteria that reproduce roughly every five\r\nhours. That means if someone doesn\u2019t brush their teeth for 24 hours, they will have\r\nover 100 billion bacteria living in their mouth!1 Saliva and sputum samples are full of analytes, making them reliable identifiers of various disorders in the human microbiome. Whether it is the presence of a pathogen in the respiratory system, or indication of mental ailments, saliva remains a powerful source for disease screening and diagnostics.\r\n\r\n\r\nEmerging Saliva-Based Research\r\n\r\nTRAP and Bacterial Diversity\r\nTraffic related air pollution (TRAP) is a hidden enemy for our respiratory system and can potentially cause ailments such as asthma and other respiratory sensitivities down the line. A study from 2021 used saliva from adolescents to determine the connection between TRAP and bacterial diversity in the lower respiratory tract.2 Norgen\u2019s Saliva DNA Collection and Preservation Devices (#RU49000) were used to collect saliva and sputum from a group of 14 year old participants. DNA was extracted from the saliva using Norgen\u2019s Saliva DNA Isolation Kit (#RU45400) and DNA from sputum was isolated using Norgen\u2019s Sputum DNA Isolation Kit (#46200). Upon isolation, next generation sequencing was used for bacterial speciation. The study found greater bacterial diversity in participants exposed to TRAP in early childhood, showing the danger of heavy traffic pollution. Particularly in sputum, which resides in the lower respiratory tract of the human system.\r\n\r\nThe figure below (Figure 1) shows that sputum had a greater median bacterial diversity than saliva for all three diversity measures.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\nPTSD\r\nSaliva has recently been considered as a potential sample type to identify mental disorders. In 2022, researchers examined a group of young war veterans who were tested for the ailment known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).3 Roughly 1 in 20 individuals suffer from PTSD, and with many cases going undiagnosed, research in this area is critical. In the study, 16s RNA sequencing was performed after isolating nucleic acids from saliva. A microbiota signature showing decreased levels of bacteria sp_HMT_914, 332 and 871 proved a correlation between human microbiome and PTSD severity. In the same study, researchers found that air pollution also positively correlates with PTSD symptoms, tying in with the research previously mentioned.\r\n\r\nSuicidal Ideation\r\nIn a 2022 study from the University of Florida, a group of researchers identified an association between the saliva microbiome and suicidal ideation in university students.4 The researchers compared the salivary microbiota and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles from 47 young adults with recent suicidal intention (SI) to 325 controls without recent SI. After controlling for sleep issues, diet and genetics, bacterial species in saliva were found to be correlated with SI. An association between HLA alleles and bacteria was identified, indicating that saliva can potentially be used for identifying suicidal intention. With suicide being a leading cause of death for young people, research as such works to address this important public health concern.5\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSaliva: A Promising Sample Type\r\nAs seen in recent research, saliva provides a true representation of the human microbiome and more. From determining the bacterial diversity in ones lower respiratory tract to identifying suicidal ideation, saliva is a promising sample type in regards to screening and diagnostics. With a simple non-invasive liquid biopsy, many stories can be told about the human in question, and many ailments can be treated and avoided. To learn more about saliva, watch our free on-demand Masterclass webinar, \"Saliva: A Promising Sample Type for Disease Screening and Diagnostics.\"\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t Landers B. Oral bacteria: How many how fast by Bill Landers. Familie Dental Zorg.https:\/\/familiedentalzorg.nl\/oral-bacteria-how-many-how-fast-by-bill-landers\/Published June 12, 2018. Accessed September 12, 2022.\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\t Niemeier-Walsh C, Ryan PH, Meller J, Ollberding NJ, Adhikari A, Reponen T. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and bacterial diversity in the lower respiratory tract of children. PLOS ONE.2021;16(6)doi:10.1371\/journal.pone.0244341\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t Levert-Levitt E, Shapira G, Sragovich S, et al. Oral microbiota signatures in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) veterans.Molecular Psychiatry.July 2022.doi:10.1038\/s41380-022-01704-6\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t Ahrens AP, Sanchez-Padilla DE, Drew JC, Oli MW, Roesch LF, Triplett EW. Saliva microbiome, dietary, and genetic markers are associated with suicidal ideation in university students.Scientific Reports.2022;12(1).doi:10.1038\/s41598-022-18020-2\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\t Facts about suicide. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.https:\/\/www.cdc.gov\/suicide\/facts\/index.htmlPublished July 25, 2022. Accessed September 12, 2022\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/220913\/banner_small.jpg');\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 1280px) and (max-height: 720px)\r\n.header-title \r\n \r\n zoom: 0.7;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar\r\npadding:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 602px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar lrgText\r\nmargin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 504px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 474px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n.webinar .mobileHidden\r\ndisplay:none !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\nfont-size:17px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:25px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 410px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:21px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 380px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:13px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:18px !important;\r\nmargin-top:12px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size: 13px !important;\r\nwidth:fit-content !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 304px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:11px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:8px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 280px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:9px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:12px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\/*@media only screen and (max-width: 932px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:21px !important;\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 742px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom:25px !important;\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:19px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:150px !important;\r\nmargin-bottom:0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 542px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:16px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:126px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:28px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0px 0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 450px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\nline-hieght:100% !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:23px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 438px) \r\n.webinar a\r\n font-size: 12px !important;\r\n width: max-content;\r\n margin-top: 1px !important;\r\n padding: 2% !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 368px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:13px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 336px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:10px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:16px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 286px) \r\n.webinar .lrgText\r\n margin-bottom: 5px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:6px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:50px !important;\r\n \r\n*\/\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.item\r\nposition:relative ;\r\n\r\n.header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n\r\nwebinar2 \r\ntext-align:center;\r\n\r\n\r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n","1"],["2022-08-22 00:00:00","Top 5 Reasons to Use Urine Preservative Over Freezing","201","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_1.jpg","2159","8514","Congratulations! You have collected your urine sample. What do you do now Do you\u2026\r\n\r\n Leave it at room temperature and risk degradation of precious DNA and RNA\r\n Freeze it at -80C and lose yield due to protein precipitation\r\nUse a preservative (hint, it\u2019s this one)\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nPreservation of urine samples is a hot topic, as many experiments involve collection of urine at an ancillary site and transportation or storage before it can be processed in the lab. Urine preservation at room temperature is incredibly useful, as the common practice of freezing samples has been a hurdle in research due to complications that can occur. These complications include the loss of valuable biomarkers as well as the cost and logistics of cold-chain storage.\r\n\r\nBelow, we present the top 5 reasons why you should use a chemical preservative the next time you collect urine samples!\r\n\r\n1. Skip the Freezing \r\nFreezing urine samples has long been the traditional gold standard for preservation and storage. Typically, after collection, storage at -70C is immediately performed in secondary collection facilities in order to prevent rapid nucleic acid degradation. Freezing tends to result in precipitation of the abundant protein found in urine - uromodulin. This protein creates a polymeric mesh in the frozen urine sample, trapping valuable biomarker molecules. The problem arises when these trapped molecules are removed within the precipitate, lowering the overall yield of potential biomarkers, such as nucleic acids. Sounds like a headache, right Imagine going through an entire purification protocol just to end up with very low yields due to the storage method. By using preservatives, the negative effects of freezing can be completely avoided.\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n2. Room Temperature Storage, Right At Home\r\nSecondary facility storage requires pesky shipping and handling. Instead, imagine if you could take care of the collection and preservation right at home Norgen\u2019s preservative allows for room temperature storage for two years, preserving the widest variety of analytes compared to other preservatives on the market. These analytes include RNA, DNA, protein, cells and exosomes. This saves on costs for shipping and storage, while also simplifying the process and making it infinitely more comfortable and convenient for the patient.\r\n\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n3. Convenience\r\nTraveling to a doctor\u2019s office for urine sample collection can be stressful and uncomfortable. However, the use of a chemical preservative can minimize the difficulty of sample collection and increase patient compliance in your research. Our Urine Collection and Preservation products come in various sizes for any research requirement, including a single dose ampoule, which preserves a flexible volume of urine (5-120mL) in any container of your choice. With the convenience of immediate preservation, your focus can remain on the purification and downstream analysis, which is where you will see the true benefits of using a high-quality preservative.\r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n4. Wide Compatibility\r\nMany studies involve examining multiple types and species of biomarkers, however, using a separate collection system for each analyte is expensive and inconvenient. Norgen\u2019s products preserve the highest variety of bioanalytes, including DNA, cell-free DNA, RNA, cell-free RNA, exosomes, exfoliated cells, bacterial cells and viruses. The preservative reliably stores the urine samples until further analysis such as cell-free DNA purification, cell-free RNA purification, exfoliated cell and bacteria RNA purification, etc. Using a preservative also prepares you for downstream applications after your purification process, such as Next Generation Sequencing. \r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n5. Inactivates Viruses and Inhibits Bacterial Growth\r\nBacterial growth during sample storage poses a serious risk to sample integrity and can bias downstream analysis. Furthermore, infectious biological samples can present health risks to researchers. Norgens urine preservative inhibits bacterial growth in samples (for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi) and inactivates viruses within 72 hours, allowing the samples to be handled and shipped safely while maintaining integrity.\r\n\r\n\r\nWith the convenience of immediately preserving urine samples at the point of collection while rendering them safe for shipping and handling, chemical preservatives have numerous advantages over freezing.\r\n\r\nIf you\u2019re interested in learning more, download our free infographic, \u201cUnlocking the Importance of Urine Biomarkers: From Discovery to Diagnosis\u201d. If you would like to try our urine preservative in your lab, request a sample!\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/220822\/banner_small.jpg');\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 1280px) and (max-height: 720px)\r\n.header-title \r\n \r\n zoom: 0.7;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar\r\npadding:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 602px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar lrgText\r\nmargin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 504px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 474px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n.webinar 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\r\n.webinar .lrgText\r\n margin-bottom: 5px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:6px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:50px !important;\r\n \r\n*\/\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.item\r\nposition:relative ;\r\n\r\n.header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n\r\nwebinar2 \r\ntext-align:center;\r\n\r\n\r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n","1"],["2022-07-28 00:00:00","Multilocus Sequence Typing: An Effective Tool in Studying the Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium","40","images\/blog\/banner_images\/IMG_1063-2-lrg.jpg","2139","8422","\r\n\r\n .item\r\n position:relative ;\r\n \r\n .header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n \r\n .webinar2 \r\n text-align:center;\r\n \r\n \r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n .image-resize \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/220728\/banner-small.jpg');\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 1280px) and (max-height: 720px)\r\n .header-title \r\n \r\n zoom: 0.7;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar\r\n padding:19px;\r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 602px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n .webinar img\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar lrgText\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar hr\r\n margin:0 !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 504px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 474px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n .webinar .mobileHidden\r\n display:none !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n line-height:150% !important;\r\n font-size:17px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar h2\r\n font-size:25px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 410px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n .webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n font-size:15px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar h2\r\n font-size:21px !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar a\r\n font-size:15px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 380px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n font-size:13px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar h2\r\n font-size:18px !important;\r\n margin-top:12px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar a\r\n font-size: 13px !important;\r\n width:fit-content !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 304px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n font-size:11px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar h2\r\n font-size:15px !important;\r\n \r\n .webinar a\r\n font-size:8px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n @media only screen and (max-width: 280px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n \r\n .webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar p\r\n font-size:9px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar h2\r\n font-size:12px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n .webinar a\r\n font-size:7px !important;\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nWhat is MLST\r\nMultilocus sequence typing (MLST) is considered the gold standard method for population analyses of bacteria, fungi, and protists.1 MLST involves the systematic sequencing of established housekeeping genes (usually six to seven) followed by comparison to central databases, enabling unequivocal and standardized characterization of bacterial isolates.1 MLST has been used as a tool to study genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of many clinically relevant bacterial pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Clostridium difficile.2,3\r\n\r\nWhat is Cryptosporidiosis\r\nCryptosporidiosis (commonly known as Crypto) is a highly contagious intestinal infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium.4 Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain, and acute diarrhea. Cryptosporidiosis is transmitted to humans through contact with infected stool, often via contaminated water or food. Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality.4 As such, it is a disease of great environmental and public health significance. \r\n\r\nStudying The Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium\r\n\r\nIn a recent study by Uran-Velasquez et al. (2022), an MLST scheme with seven markers (CP47, MS5, MS9, MSC6-7, TP14, and gp60) was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from 28 Colombian patients. Uran-Velasquez et al. (2022) extracted total DNA from patients' stool samples using Norgen Biotek's Stool DNA Isolation Kit (Cat. 27600, 65600). Norgen's kit offers a rapid, convenient methodology for the isolation of high-quality DNA, suitable for sensitive downstream applications such as MLST. \r\n\r\nPolymorphic behavior was observed for all seven markers for both C. hominis and C. parvum, especially with the CP47, MS5, and gp60 markers. The gene fixation index (Fst) suggested evolutionary similarity between the C. hominis samples; however, less similarity and greater sequence divergence was observed in the C. parvum samples, offering insight into evolutionary events that have occurred in South American populations of Cryptosporidium.4 Further, their data suggest a predominance of an anthroponotic transmission route. Overall, their study supports the use of MLST as a tool in analyzing the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium, offering greater depth and detail than could be obtained with unilocular approaches.\r\n\r\nLearn more about the uses of Norgen's Stool DNA Isolation Kits here.\r\n\r\n\r\nRelated Products\r\n\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n Stool DNA Isolation Kit (Cat. 27000)\r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\n References\r\n \r\n \r\n Page AJ, Alikhan NF, Carleton HA, Seemann T, Keane JA, Katz LS. Comparison of classical multi-locus sequence typing software for next-generation sequencing data. Microb Genom.2017 Jul 4;3(8):e000124.10.1099\/mgen.0.000124. PMID: 29026660; PMCID: PMC5610716.\r\n \r\n \r\n Pilo S, Zizelski Valenci G, Rubinstein M, Pichadze L, Scharf Y, Dveyrin Z, Rorman E, Nissan I. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing for Chlamydia trachomatis: improved results for clinical samples with low amounts of C. trachomatis DNA.BMC Microbiol.2021 Jan 18;21(1):28. doi: 10.1186\/s12866-020-02077-y. PMID: 33461496; PMCID: PMC7814548.\r\n \r\n \r\n Griffiths D, Fawley W, Kachrimanidou M, Bowden R, Crook DW, Fung R, Golubchik T, Harding RM, Jeffery KJ, Jolley KA, Kirton R, Peto TE, Rees G, Stoesser N, Vaughan A, Walker AS, Young BC, Wilcox M, Dingle KE. Multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium difficile.J Clin Microbiol.2010 Mar;48(3):770-8.doi: 10.1128\/JCM.01796-09. Epub 2009 Dec 30. PMID: 20042623; PMCID: PMC2832416.\r\n \r\n \r\n Uran-Velasquez J, Alzate JF, Farfan-Garcia AE, Gomez-Duarte OG, Martinez-Rosado LL, Dominguez-Hernandez DD, Rojas W, Galvan-Diaz AL, Garcia-Montoya GM. Multilocus Sequence Typing helps understand the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from Colombian patients.PLoS One.2022 Jul 8;17(7):e0270995.doi: 10.1371\/journal.pone.0270995. PMID: 35802653; PMCID: PMC9269747.\r\n \r\n\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n","1"],["2022-07-11 00:00:00","A Rapid and Sensitive Method for Plum Pox Detection","31","images\/blog\/banner_images\/plum pox virus.jpg","2130","8385","\r\nWhat is Plum Pox Virus (PPV)\r\n\r\nPlum pox is a devastating viral disease that threatens Niagara\u2019s stone fruit industry. The disease is caused by the plum pox virus (PPV) of the genus Potyvirus. Plants that are susceptible to PPV include peaches, nectarines, plums, and apricots. Symptoms of plum pox include characteristic spots or \u201cpox\u201d on fruit, leaves, and stems, in addition to fruit deformities, a decrease in fruit yield, and premature fruit dropping. PPV is transmitted from infected trees by aphids, grafting, or budding. There is no known cure for PPV. Rather, management is focused on the destruction of all infected trees, incurring significant economic losses.\r\n\r\nThe Plum Pox Management and Monitoring Program (PPMMP) was implemented by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in 2011 to counter the negative impact of PPV on Canada's stone fruit industry. The PPMMP consists of annual monitoring of orchard and residential properties within the PPV quarantine area (in portions of the Niagara Region and Hamilton), a propagation ban, and movement restrictions imposed on susceptible plant species.\r\n\r\nSensitive detection is the crucial first step in the management of plum pox. Currently, the two main detection methods are immunological assays, such as ELISA, and nucleic-acid based assays, such as RT-PCR. Studies have shown that immunological methods have lower specificity due to species cross-reactivity, variability among strains, and low viral titres in plant tissue samples.1,2 As such, RT-PCR techniques constitute the gold standard for PPV detection.1\r\n\r\n\r\nPlum Pox Virus Detection\r\n\r\nNorgen Biotek\u2019s PPV Detection Kits (Cat. TM33400, TM33410) offer a rapid, sensitive RT-PCR-based method for the detection of viral RNA from infected plant tissues. Norgen\u2019s test has been adopted by the CFIA because of the assay\u2019s sensitivity, specificity, cost efficiency, and ease-of-use, and will continue to play a key role in plum pox management within the Niagara region and beyond. \r\n\r\nRelated Products\r\n\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n PPV Detection Kits (Cat. TM33400, TM33410)\r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t S\u00e1nchez-Navarro, J.A., Aparicio, F., Herranz, M.C.\u00a0et al.\u00a0Simultaneous detection and identification of eight stone fruit viruses by one-step RT-PCR. Eur J Plant Pathol\u00a011177\u201384 (2005)https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1007\/s10658-004-1422-y\r\n\t\r\n\t\r\n\t Mart\u00ednez-G\u00f3mez, P., Rubio, M., Dicenta, F., Aparicio, F. and Pall\u00e1s, V. (2003). COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF PLUM POX VIRUS (PPV) RESISTANCE IN APRICOT BREEDING PROGRAMS.Acta Hortic.622, 353-357 https:\/\/doi.org\/10.17660\/ActaHortic.2003.622.35\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 1280px) and (max-height: 720px)\r\n.header-title \r\n \r\n zoom: 0.7;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar\r\npadding:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 602px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar lrgText\r\nmargin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 504px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\n margin-bottom:0 !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 474px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n.webinar .mobileHidden\r\ndisplay:none !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\nfont-size:17px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:25px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 410px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:21px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 380px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:13px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:18px !important;\r\nmargin-top:12px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size: 13px !important;\r\nwidth:fit-content !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 304px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:11px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:8px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 280px) and (max-height: 1002px) \r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:9px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:12px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\/*@media only screen and (max-width: 932px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:21px !important;\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 742px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom:25px !important;\r\nline-height:150% !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar a\r\nfont-size:19px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:150px !important;\r\nmargin-bottom:0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 542px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:16px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:126px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:28px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar hr\r\nmargin:0px 0 !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 450px) \r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:15px !important;\r\nline-hieght:100% !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:23px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 438px) \r\n.webinar a\r\n font-size: 12px !important;\r\n width: max-content;\r\n margin-top: 1px !important;\r\n padding: 2% !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 368px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:100px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:13px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:19px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 336px) \r\n.webinar img\r\n width:80px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nmargin-bottom: 0px !important;\r\nfont-size:10px !important;\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:16px;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 286px) \r\n.webinar .lrgText\r\n margin-bottom: 5px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar h2\r\nfont-size:7px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar p\r\nfont-size:6px !important;\r\n\r\n\r\n.webinar img\r\nwidth:50px !important;\r\n \r\n*\/\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.item\r\nposition:relative ;\r\n\r\n.header-title \r\n \/*z-index: 999;*\/\r\n position: absolute;\r\n top: 0%;\r\n left: 45%;\r\n text-align: left;\r\n\r\nwebinar2 \r\ntext-align:center;\r\n\r\n\r\n .wrapLink \r\n word-break: break-all;\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n","1"],["2022-06-17 00:00:00","A New Gold Standard for Stool Sample Storage","27","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg_0.jpg","2126","8039","Ensuring Capture of the True Microbiome Profile\r\nAs researchers and clinicians delve into the gut with a multi-omics approach, multiple aspects of the gut microbiome are considered. For example, the microbial genome, transcriptome, and metabolites for the entire microbial community are profiled. This helps shed a light on the composition (genome) and activity (transcriptome and metabolome) within the gut microbiome. \r\nStool samples are often used to gain a representative snapshot of the gut microbiome, and as we learn more about this sample type, we strive to ensure that they are handled with best practices in mind.\r\n\r\nSince stool samples are often used as a proxy for gut microbiome studies, the collection and storage method selected must halt microbial activity. Bacteria are responsive to their external environment, so once the sample is exposed to conditions outside of the body, the microbiome profile will experience a shift due to this adaptation. The current gold standard for stool sample preservation is freezing, but as we reviewed in our past blog (Revisiting the Gold Standard for Stool Sample Storage), freezing of the sample will lead to the lysis of Gram-negative bacteria and subsequent exposure of their nucleic acids to nucleases, whereas chemical preservation lyses all bacteria and inactivates the nucleases in stool samples.1,2\r\n\r\nA larger comparison by Plauzolles et al. (2022) evaluated the technical aspects of several collection and storage methods, including freezing, chemical preservation, room temperature storage, and fecal swabs. DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA gene was subsequently sequenced from these samples.3 The authors identified Norgen's Stool Nucleic Acid Collection and Preservation Tubes as the best performing solution for the stabilization of the gut microbiome. In Figure 1, Norgen was found to be most similar to the frozen samples, being closest to the reference (bottom of the graph).\r\n\r\n\r\n \r\n Figure 1. Summary of community shifts in response to stabilizing solutions over a 14-day storage period. Bray-Curtis distance towards the reference for each patient grouped by stabilizing solution. Median and 5th-to-95th percentile ranges are shown for both inter-aliquot and interpatient variability (Adapted from Plauzolles et al, 2022.)5\r\n\r\n\r\nThis recent comparison and previous results show that freezing stool samples lyses Gram-negative bacteria, which leads to the exposure of Gram-negative bacterial DNA to nucleases. Although freezing is known as the current gold standard, the true microbial profile may be captured more accurately through Norgen\u2019s chemical preservation method. To learn more about stool collection and preservation, watch our on-demand webinar, \u201cA Multi-Omics Look Into the Stool Microbiome\".\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n Walker VK, Palmer GR, Voordouw G. Freeze-Thaw Tolerance and Clues to the Winter Survival of a Soil Community. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006;72(3):1784-1792. doi:10.1038\/s41598-019-53183-5\r\n \r\n \r\n Watson EJ, Giles J, Scherer BL, Blatchford P. Human faecal collection methods demonstrate a bias in microbiome composition by cell wall structure. Scientific Reports,2019;9(1):1-8. doi:10.1038\/s41598-019-53183-5\r\n \r\n \r\n Plauzolles A, Toumi E, Bonnet M, et al. Human Stool Preservation Impacts Taxonomic Profiles in 16S Metagenomics Studies. Front Cell Infect Microbiol ,2022;12:722886. doi:10.3389\/fcimb.2022.722886\r\n \r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/220617\/banner_small.jpg');\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n.sticky-wrapper\r\noverflow-x:visible;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n","1"],["2022-06-01 00:00:00","The Science Behind Highly Sensitive Cell-Free DNA Isolation","39","images\/blog\/banner_images\/banner_lrg.jpg","2123","8034","\r\nQuality Samples = Quality Results\r\nIsaac Newton famously said, \u201cIf I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.\u201d However, what if said giants weren't looking in the right direction According to a recent publication, \"32%-75% of all testing errors are the result of issues that arise during the pre-analytical phase\".1 Unquestionably, this is due to a lack of regulated protocols for sample collection and handling. After all, only quality samples can generate quality results.\r\n\r\nAs the push towards the utilization of cell-free DNA biomarkers in precision medicine increases, more research is bringing attention to the need for standardized sample handling protocols within the field. Cell-free DNA is highly fragmented and the majority (90%) are found in the range between 80 bp-200 bp.2 To make things more complicated, urine samples are highly variable among individuals and are much more diluted compared to other samples like blood. There is no need to panic though, as we\u2019ve got some helpful tips for working with urine!\r\n\r\nAlthough the clinical application of cell-free DNA (and cell-free RNA) within urine shows great promise in oncology, it remains a challenging sample type to work with due to a lack of standardized pre-analytical protocols. Urine has evidently been shown to be a source of biomarkers, however, due to its nature as a highly diluted cell-free sample, it requires careful consideration during the collection procedure. Compared to traditional tissue biopsies, urine liquid biopsy offers many advantages, including the non-invasive detection of circulating fetal DNA for prenatal genetic diagnostics and use as a potential tool to capture tumor heterogeneity in metastatic cancer patients.2\r\n\r\nIn addition to sample collection, sensitive methods for nucleic acid isolation and quantification are areas which require standardization. All steps that have the potential to affect the outcome and informational value of the performed analyses should follow a standardized protocol since they are used for the discovery of novel biomarkers.\r\n\r\n\r\nA Need for Standardization\r\nIn a 2020 publication by Lee et al., a group of scientists compared the efficiencies of four commercial kits for urinary cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) isolation. This research was an effort to bridge the gap on the lack of standardized isolation methods for small DNA fragments that are critical when investigating urologic malignancies.3 The group demonstrated that Norgen\u2019s Urine Cell-Free Circulating DNA Purification Kit was the most efficient for isolation of more fragmented cf-DNA in the range of 50\u2013100 bp with the lowest cellular genomic DNA contamination (Figure 1).3\r\n\r\n\r\n \r\n Figure 1. Comparison of the degree of contamination by cellular genomic DNA. The degree of contamination was assessed as the ratio of cfDNA (50\u2013300 bp) to high molecular weight (HMW) DNA (>1 kb).3\r\n\r\n\r\nNorgen has since developed a convenient workflow to assist researchers in selecting the most suitable kits for their projects. Whether you are working with frozen or fresh samples, we offer a convenient method to help you isolate the analyte of choice (RNA, DNA, exosome) with the highest efficiency using our silicon carbide technology. Silicon carbide ensures that the smallest RNA and DNA fragments are isolated and compatible for a variety of sensitive downstream applications.\u00a0\r\nLet us help you eliminate pre-analytical testing errors and assist you in reaching your research goals!\r\n\r\n \r\nClick to Enlarge\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\nView References\r\n\r\nReferences\r\n\r\n \r\n Szil\u00e1gyi M, P\u00f6s O, M\u00e1rton \u00c9, et al. Circulating cell-free nucleic acids: Main characteristics and clinical application. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020;21(18):6827. doi:10.3390\/ijms21186827\r\n \r\n \r\n Augustus E, Van Casteren K, Sorber L, et al. The art of obtaining a high yield of cell-free DNA from urine. PLOS ONE.2020;15(4). doi:10.1371\/journal.pone.0231058\r\n \r\n \r\n Lee EY, Lee E-J, Yoon H, Lee DH, Kim KH. Comparison of four commercial kits for isolation of urinary cell-free DNA and sample storage conditions. Diagnostics.2020;10(4):234doi:10.3390\/diagnostics10040234\r\n \r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.figure_image \r\n min-width:100%;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 500px)\r\n.image-resize \r\n content:url('https:\/\/norgenbiotek.com\/sites\/default\/files\/images\/blog\/220601\/banner_small.png');\r\n\r\n\r\n.pic-float-right\r\nmax-width:35% !important;\r\n\r\n.sticky-wrapper\r\noverflow-x:visible;\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 1092px)\r\n.pic-float-right \r\n min-width:50vw;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 432px) and (max-height:721px)\r\n.pic-float-right \r\n min-width:75vw;\r\n\r\n\r\n@media only screen and (max-width: 432px) and (min-height:721px)\r\n.pic-float-right \r\n min-width:100vw;\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nfunction close()\r\nconsole.log(\"h\");\r\ndocument.querySelector(\".zoom-ngs\").display=\"none\";\r\n\r\n\r\n$('.collapsetoggle').on('click', function() \r\n $(this).next().slideToggle();\r\n $(this).toggleClass('expanded');\r\n if($(this).hasClass('expanded')) \r\n $(this).html('Hide References');\r\n else \r\n $(this).html('View References');\r\n \r\n);\r\n","1"],["2022-05-24 00:00:00","How Colorectal Cancer Is Diagnosed: From Symptoms To Emerging Methods of Diagnostics","172","images\/blog\/banner_images\/finalbanner_lrg.jpg","2119","8009","\r\n One of the most lethal cancers globally is colorectal cancer (CRC). Worldwide, it is ranked as the third most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women. \r\n CRC is defined as a tissue growth called polyps, occurring in the inner lining of either the colon or rectum area. \r\n Although two-thirds of these polyps are often found to be benign, they can develop to be cancerous over many years.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe 3 Types of Polyps\r\n\r\n \r\n These polyps start out in a pre-cancerous state called Adenomatous polyps (adenomas). This process starts from the surface layer, called the mucosa, which spreads outwards to affect the deeper layers. \r\n It then develops into adenocarcinomas, a type of cancer in the body's mucus cells and spreads throughout the whole intestinal wall.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nCRC Symptoms and Risks\r\n\r\n\r\n Since some common symptoms of this cancer consist of stomach cramping, gas, changes in bowel movements, and fatigue, this type of cancer often go undetected until a progressed stage. \r\n In addition, over 50% of the cases and deaths are correlated with external lifestyle factors such as diet, excessive alcohol consumption, increased body weight, smoking, and lack of physical activity. \r\n However, upon early detection, the disease is treatable. The prognosis of CRC significantly depends on the histopathology, progression, clinical variables, and molecular oncogenesis of cancer. \r\n A major risk factor for developing CRC is age, with only 3% of CRC patients being under 40 years old1. After the age of 50, the chances of developing CRC increase significantly.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nCRC Diagnostic Methods\r\n\r\n\r\n CRC can be detected and studied through colonoscopy, an invasive screening procedure that involves sedation. \r\n Due to this intense and uncomfortable method, many patients may often delay or prolong undergoing examination resulting in the progression of the tumor.\r\n\r\n\r\n Since CRC commonly causes bleeding within the colon or rectum, a blood test is also a feasible method for detection. \r\n In addition, increased red blood cell counts and signs of anemia are big indicators of CRC that can be found through a blood test.\r\n\r\n\r\n An emerging method for diagnosis is through the analysis of stool samples. \r\n Stool samples are non-invasive and can safely be collected at home. Furthermore, they allow us to study common biomarkers associated with CRC.\r\n\r\n 59ce067264






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