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Schiffman Consumer Behavior Pdf 19


The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected global health and socioeconomic factors, requiring people to adapt and change their behaviors to protect themselves from the disease. One fundamental change is that people try to avoid direct contact with infected persons and indirect contact with objects near or used by infected persons (Zhao and Bacao, 2021; Tang et al., 2020). The growing number of people avoiding contact because of feeling vulnerable during the pandemic (Milaković, 2021) also has been influenced by frequent warnings from the World Health Organization (Zhao and Bacao, 2021). A significant behavioral change is observed in how people deal with purchase transactions by relying more on contactless or digital payment systems (Milaković, 2021).




schiffman consumer behavior pdf 19



Contactless payment systems through digital technology refer to mobile payment (m-payment) or an electronic payment method that does not use cash (Karjaluoto et al., 2020). In addition to its primary function in financial transactions, digital payment offers several benefits: storing payment instrument data, saving funds, accelerating payment, efficiency, effectiveness, ease of use, accessibility and transparency (Wu et al., 2016; Venkatesh et al., 2012). Extensive research has examined consumer behavior using m-payment technology (Ooi and Tan, 2016; Liu et al., 2019). The UTAUT developed by Venkatesh et al. (2003) is the most common theoretical approach used to explain consumers' intention to adopt new technology and their subsequent usage behavior.


The widespread use of digital services such as m-payment has triggered concerns despite its benefits. One consumer concern is PS (Shin, 2009; Sivathanu, 2019). The security issue is relevant because consumers are asked to provide their personal information when using m-payment, raising concerns about the possible misuse of data. Consumers will interpret the degree of security based on the service provider's actions to protect financial and personal information from any possible violation during and after the transaction process (Balapour et al., 2020; Singh and Srivastava, 2018). A high level of security for digital technology is perceived as a guarantee that personal data is secured and will not be lost or stolen by third parties for illegal or unethical purposes (Gracia et al., 2015). If consumers perceive that the provider policy on privacy issues is effective, they will have more confidence in the security, increasing their willingness to install and use the application (Balapour et al., 2020). This argument leads to the first hypothesis:H1.Perceived security of m-payment positively affects a favorable attitude toward m-payment.


Furthermore, when people believe new technology will perform adequately or provide benefits, they will be more likely to use it (Sivathanu, 2019). This notion refers to PE as the level to which individuals believe using new technology will help them fulfill their needs (Venkatesh et al., 2012). If consumers perceive that a digital payment method could offer several benefits (such as efficiency, effectiveness and speed of services), they will have a more positive attitude toward adopting it (Davis, 1989; Musyaffi et al., 2021). Thus, we propose the second hypothesis:H2.Performance expectancy of m-payment positively affects a favorable attitude toward m-payment.


Next, PE influenced a FATM (H2 was supported). In the COVID-19 pandemic context, this implies that consumers perceived m-payment not only as helping them avoid contact with infected people during purchase transactions (Milaković, 2021) but also as having a reliable performance (Zhao and Bacao, 2021) that could help them achieve faster and less costly services (Yang et al., 2021). The finding that the perceived positive performance of m-payment promotes a positive evaluation of m-payment corroborates prior literature (Jouda, 2020; Aslam et al., 2017).


Interestingly, this study found that EE had a negative effect on FATM (H3 was not supported). A similar result was reported by Zhao and Bacao (2021), who found that EE negatively affected behavioral intention. The reason may be that during the COVID-19 pandemic, people were willing to make an effort to take any action for their safety, including learning complex digital payment technology. Using m-payment is not as simple as using cash, especially for those who primarily relied on cash before the pandemic. For instance, users must create an account first, input a password and keep it safe and then top up the value before using it. However, EE may not have been a concern for consumers during the pandemic compared to other factors such as reliability, security and benefits (Zhao and Bacao, 2021).


This study also found that an UATC strongly predicts intention to continue using m-payment (H7 was supported). This means that CI to use m-payment does not arise only from a FATM method but also from an UATC. Further, the results show that an UATC (β = 0.30) and a FATM (β = 0.32) strongly affect the CI to use m-payment. This suggests that consumers will continue to use m-payment, shifting from cash to cashless methods in their purchase transactions.


Finally, this study verified that CI influenced the AU of m-payment (H8 was supported). Behavioral intention has a strong relationship with actual behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and is supported by other researchers (Thakur and Srivastava, 2014; Venkatesh et al., 2012). In the case of m-payment usage, the present study enhances the existing literature.


This study enhances the theory of behavioral intention to the continuance usage of m-payment by expanding UTAUT with the PPM model as the foundation of explanation. Four antecedent factors, namely, favorable attitude toward m-payment, social influence, facilitating conditions and unfavorable attitude toward cash payment, positively affect the continuance intention


Most advertisers insist that the correct selection of the right celebrity is very important for the success of the advertisement because consumers typically believe the celebrity should have high positive affect and recognition, and the image of the celebrity must match with that of the product (Choi and Rifon 2012). For example, sporting goods are endorsed by famous sportsmen: Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods endorse Nike and David Beckham endorses Adidas, etc., while the choice of a movie star is not effective to endorse sports products. An important factor in determining the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement is celebrity-brand/product congruence (Choi and Rifon 2007). A good match-up between a celebrity and a product is more effective for generating positive advertisement evaluations that enhance endorser believability and advertising effectiveness than a bad fit between the two (Davies and Slater 2015). A congruent product-endorser match is more likely to persuade consumers to buy the endorsed brand by transferring cultural meanings residing in their brand image to the product. Moreover, many studies show that a celebrity has a greater impact on consumers in terms of attitude and purchase intention than a non-celebrity spokesperson (McCormick 2016). Previous literature identifies family and friends as being perceived to be more trustworthy than salespeople, and many consumers think of celebrities as friends although they might not actually know them (Erdogan 1999; Choi and Rifon 2007; Escalas and Bettman 2017).


As Millennials love to shop and are brand and fashion conscious (Bolton et al. 2013; Noble et al. 2009), it is essential for retail marketers and managers to determine the right celebrity who fits with the brand/product and to communicate this linkage between the celebrity endorser and a brand as this can help Millennials to identify the brand/product that reflects their self-perception (Lippe 2001) and therefore, they are more likely to purchase and be loyal to this brand/product. It is suggested that retail marketers should reach Millennials whose choices are directly influenced by the content on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) by conducting a viral marketing campaign through the social media pages of celebrity endorsers that they like and trust to build influence through SNSs. Retail marketers are also suggested to allocate more investigation into celebrity endorsements that match with brand image and to focus on increasing opportunities for having good partnerships with brand companies that generally sponsor famous celebrities with positive publicity. Once a celebrity signs a contract with a company, it is recommended that the firm requires the celebrity to follow rules of the handbook or guidelines where moral standards are discussed. Also, compensation for a loss needs to be clearly defined in order to avoid incidences that may smear their reputation and trustworthiness in the eyes of the public. While attractiveness is easily attained, truth worthiness is hard to achieve. Thus, agents and celebrity handlers should respond to the public through a swift and sincere apology when the celebrity has made any imporper behavior and a negative scandal.


This research article aimed to study consumer behavior towards primary medical supplies in the event of pandemic by taking the situation pandemic of the Covid-19 virus or 2019-new corona virus by choosing Chiang Mai province as the study area because Chiang Mai is a tourist city that has many tourists, especially Chinese tourists traveling a lot. This research considered consumer behavior through path analysis factors influencing the purchase of primary medical supplies in the pandemic of the Covid-19 virus by collecting data from a questionnaire with 400 people in Chiang Mai The results showed that demand for primary medical supplies was both a direct and indirect effect on pharmaceutical purchasing decisions during the pandemic, with a direct coefficient of 0.364 and 0.381 indirectly. While the searching and evaluating information factor was the second direct effect with coefficient 0.362. This research suggested that government and private agencies should reserve large quantities of primary medical supplies for response to the demand for medical supplies of people during the pandemic.


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